Hematoma is a common medical and dental problem that occurs when the walls of blood vessels, such as arteries and veins, are damaged. This condition is usually caused by trauma but may also arise from medical or dental procedures that tear or damage nearby tissues and blood vessels.
Hematomas that develop from injuries to small blood vessels (e.g., bruises) tend to be relatively benign and heal on their own within a few days; however, larger hematomas can be painful and require medical treatment; in particular, those located in the brain or other vital organs pose a life-threatening risk and require urgent medical attention.
Normal injury allows the body to repair damage to a blood vessel wall by forming fibrin patches and activating its clotting cascade. However, if the hole in the wall is large and allows blood to continue leaking out, it can lead to an hematoma.
Most hematomas are minor and do not necessitate treatment, but those with certain bleeding disorders or taking blood-thinning medications should consult their doctors about the issue. Furthermore, those who have sustained traumatic injuries such as those from vehicle crashes or sports accidents should see their doctors if they experience unexplained bruising and bleeding.
Hematomas can occur in any part of the body and range in size and intensity. They may be small, consisting only of one dot of blood, or large enough to cause significant swelling.
Hematomas are commonly caused by contact sports, physical labor or falls from heights. In rare instances, hematomas may form due to minor surgical procedures or injections of drugs.
People with hematomas in the nose may develop septal hematomas, where blood collects between the nostrils. This condition can be due to a broken nose or as an aftereffect of septum surgery.
Other types of hematomas include subdermal, which develop just beneath the skin; these are more likely to occur in people taking blood-thinning medications; and intramuscular, found within layers of muscle tissue.
Hernias are a common medical issue that occurs when an organ or part of the intestine protrudes through a weak spot in the muscle wall.
Hernias can be hereditary or acquired. They tend to develop in the abdomen, groin and upper thigh area, particularly where you have had surgery or had an incision made.
Hernias can be painful and worsen if left untreated, especially if they get stuck in the opening they push through. Not only is this uncomfortable, but it may cut off blood supply to the herniated tissue as well.
Hernias can be caused by various factors; some result from strain on an organ or intestine, while others are the result of weak muscles.
Inguinal hernias are the most common type of abdominal wall prolapse. This passageway runs along your lower abdominal wall between your groin and belly button, creating an inguinal hernia.
Femoral hernias are less common, occurring when fatty tissue protrudes through the smaller canal under your groin.
Hiatal hernias occur when the upper portion of your stomach pushes through a hole (known as the hiatus) in your diaphragm, the thin muscle that separates your chest from tummy. While they’re usually not painful, they may cause heartburn in certain individuals.
At your appointment, your doctor will perform a physical exam and may order imaging with focused ultrasound or CT scan to confirm the diagnosis. In most cases, signs of a hernia will be visible during this examination.
If your hernia is more serious, your general practitioner (GP) will likely refer you to hospital for surgical treatment if necessary. If the hernia is causing pain or changes color, goes numb, or leads to other symptoms like fever, nausea and vomiting, see a doctor promptly.
When seeking hernia repair, you’ll need to consult a specialized hernia specialist who can perform the procedure. They will assist in deciding whether open surgery or minimally-invasive techniques such as laparoscopic hernia repair are the most suitable for your condition.
Most hernias aren’t life-threatening, but they can become increasingly painful and dangerous if left untreated. Your groin or abdomen may swell and feel uncomfortable; you might experience sharp or dull pain that gets worse with movement such as standing up or straining. Additionally, a hernia may cut off blood flow to your intestines, leading to tissue death.
The thyroid is a butterfly-shaped gland located at the front of your neck, just below your Adam’s apple (larynx). Its size is comparable to a plum cut in half and consists of two lobes connected by an isthmus of tissue.
The thyroid gland produces hormones which control how your body uses energy. These chemicals affect many functions in the body, such as heart rate, breathing, weight and mood. When this gland isn’t functioning optimally, a variety of symptoms may arise.
Thyroid disease is a widespread condition that can significantly diminish quality of life. In fact, an estimated 20 million Americans have some degree of thyroid dysfunction at some point during their lives.
Diagnosing Grave’s syndrome typically begins with a physical examination, blood tests and sometimes a biopsy of the affected thyroid. Your physician may also inquire about your medical history, physical examination and other signs and symptoms indicative of the disease.
Thyroid diseases include hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism.
Hyperthyroidism occurs when your thyroid produces too many of the hormones thyroxine and triiodothyronine. When this happens, you’ll experience fatigue, difficulty sleeping, and other signs of hypothyroidism.
Your doctor may suggest medication to treat the disorder or surgery to remove the affected gland. They may also suggest radioactive iodine therapy to reduce levels of excess thyroid hormone in your blood.
You may need a special test that measures the levels of hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) in your blood. Your doctor will measure how much of each hormone is protein bound and free in your system.
Thyroid hormone is largely composed of the primary form, T4, which makes up around 95 percent. To exert its effects, some T4 must be converted to T3 by the liver.
Most thyroid cancers are papillary cancers, which develop from follicular cells within your thyroid gland. Generally, these cancers have a good prognosis for most patients.
One of the most challenging aspects of treating any kind of cancer is not knowing at what stage you have. But thanks to modern techniques for detection and treatment, survival rates have drastically improved. A lumpectomy — removing only the tumor with minimal healthy tissue around it — can result in a five year breast cancer free rate close to 70%.
After a lumpectomy, radiation therapy is sometimes employed to eliminate any remaining cancer cells. This could be done as either one treatment or multiple sessions spread out over months or years. Most often, low dose radiation therapy is used in order to avoid potential risks associated with overexposure to radiation.
The great thing about many of these treatments is that they’re usually relatively painless, giving patients time and energy to enjoy life. Dr. McCloskey recommends the deep inspiratory breath hold – an advanced medical term which involves inflating your lungs and shifting them back and forth to minimize exposure to your heart and chest.
If you are a breast cancer patient or care for someone who is, UCLA Health offers an array of treatments to choose from. With more than 50 specialized clinics dedicated solely to breast cancer care, UCLA Health offers everything from chemotherapy and surgery to pharmacology treatments.